DURIN The underappreciated roles of dwarf-shrubs in responding to and influencing global climate change
Predicting how the biosphere will respond to the global climate and environmental changes, and in turn how these responses will feed back to and influence the climate and earth system, is a grand and urgent cross-disciplinary scientific challenge. Climate changes are currently altering plant, animal and microorganism distributions, community composition, and food webs, as well as affecting biotic interactions within and between species and trophic levels; and these changes are now posing imminent threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. A resilient, functioning biosphere is critical for climate change mitigation and adaptation, and thus we urgently need knowledge on how ongoing biodiversity and ecosystem changes in turn feed back to influence the climate and earth system. Terrestrial ecosystem models (e.g., CLM-FATES) are valuable integrative tools for synthesizing and upscaling terrestrial ecological process knowledge, as they are built from fundamental biological principles, incorporate general ecological process understanding, and are explicitly coupled to global climate and earth system models. Current models are built around parameterizing the physiological processes of the major plant functional types within the global biomes. This is a natural starting point, as plants are key players in ecosystems; they make up the majority of the global terrestrial biomass, they are the main source of photosynthetically fixed carbon, and they serve as habitat, food sources, and hosts for other organismal groups, while also competing with them for resources. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the interactions of plants with their environment, with each other, and with other organisms in the ecosystem may significantly influence both their response to climate change and ecosystem feedbacks to the climate and earth system. The DURIN project will take a cross-disciplinary approach to address this knowledge gap through the lens of dwarf-shrubs.
DURINs unique multi-pronged empirical approach builds upon existing distributed observational systems, field experiments, and controlled-environment experiments. This enables great flexibility in exploring broad-scale patterns and context-dependencies in dwarf-shrub biotic interactions, and responses and feedbacks to climate across multiple sites. It also allows for detailed quantification of the underlying mechanisms and processes which can then be scaled to an earth system feedback perspective. To facilitate this, DURIN develops a collaborative workflow facilitating cross-disciplinary knowledge transfer.
The primary objective of the DURIN project is to provide critical new knowledge about an important but underrepresented plant functional type in climate-biosphere science; the dwarf-shrubs of the boreal, alpine, and arctic regions, and simultaneously provide a worked example of an integrated climate response-feedback research workflow. To that end, the secondary objectives are to:
- Examine variation in dwarf-shrubs physiological and growth responses to climate, and their impacts on microclimate (WP1);
- Map important species interactions, focusing on ericoid mycorrhizae (ErM) and quantifying key roles in dwarf-shrub carbon dynamics (WP2);
- Assess how environmental factors and vegetation characteristics impact ecosystem functioning and carbon dynamics (WP3);
- Use DURIN WP0-3 outcomes to parameterize dwarf-shrubs as a new plant functional type within a terrestrial ecosystem model (WP4);
- Create optimized data workflows using transparent, reproducible Open Science practices (WP5).
DURIN is realized through six work packages (hereafter WPs) focusing on coordinating the project, field and lab infrastructure and existing data (WP0); collecting and analyzing data on plant functioning (WP1), ecological interactions (WP2); ecosystem functioning (WP3); ecosystem feedbacks to climate (WP4); and data and analytical workflows (WP5).
WP0: Project coordination, field and lab infrastructure, and cross-WPs data (Vandvik, Egelkraut, all)
WP0 will lead, coordinate and manage the DURIN project, facilitate communication and collaboration (see section 3.1), and manage resources and infrastructure across WPs and in collaboration with external partners. The latter is critical, as DURIN builds from data and infrastructure (field sites, experiments, model platforms) of several previous and current projects (EMERALD, SeedClim, LandPress, FEEDBACK). Key infrastructures include observational systems and experiments (and associated general data), from which specific response variables will be sampled in WPs 1-3. All experiments will be set up and run using best-practice community protocols. WP5 coordinates data workflows.
WP1: Physiology and functional biology (Michaletz, Vollsnes, PhD1)
WP1 will examine how different dwarf-shrubs vary in their physiological and growth responses to climate (Q1, Q3), and their impacts on microclimate (Q2). Using field and controlled environment experiments, WP1 will identify response- and effect traits and the influence of biotic interactions (WP2) on different facets of ecosystem carbon cycling (WP3), and inform analyses of feedbacks to climate (WP4). WP1 will focus on the controlled-climate experiments to establish causal relationships, which will be augmented with measurements in the field experiments and selected observational system sites.
WP2: Species interactions (Kauserud, Velle, PostDoc1)
In the assessment of species interactions, we will focus on ericoid mycorrhizae (ErM) and quantify their key role in dwarf-shrub carbon, nutrient, and water cycling. A first necessary step is to map the diversity and distribution of these organisms before we go into more specific and experimental studies of plant-mycorrhizal interactions and their climate relations. In addition, our wide environmental gradients are well-suited for broad-scale assessment of a range of interactions and ecosystem services (e.g., pollination, grazing, berry production). To expand DURINs scope, we will explore opportunities offered by collaboration with other projects and offering MSc projects.
WP3: Ecosystem functioning (Althuizen, Enquist, PhD2)
WP3 will use the dwarf-shrub field and controlled-environment experiments to study the impact of climate and open vs. forested environment, and variation in plant functional traits and ErM association, on ecosystem functioning, focusing on carbon (C stocks and dynamics, growth, and decomposition). The goal is to identify response- and effect traits and the influence of biotic interactions on different facets of ecosystem carbon cycling, and inform analyses of feedbacks to climate (WP4).
WP4: Climate feedbacks: The CLM-FATES platform (Tang, Geange, PostDoc2)
In WP4 we take a terrestrial ecosystem modelling perspective, linking our insights and data from WP0-3 in order to parameterize and test a new dwarf-shrub plant functional type (PFT), and integrate it into the CLM-FATES model. We will run benchmark models against field observations at site level, and conduct model experiments exploring the role of dwarf-shrubs in both biochemical and biophysical climate feedbacks at regional and global scales.
WP5: Open Science (OS) and reproducible cross-disciplinary framework (Halbritter, Telford)
Effective realization of our project outcomes will require effective handling and integration of big, diverse, and interrelated data across different disciplines, knowledge domains, and spatial and temporal scales. To facilitate efficient and flexible data and analytical workflows, we will build custom-made pipelines for best-practice transparent and reproducible workflows and data management, following OS and FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) principles.
- Vigdis Vandvik, University of Bergen
- Liv Guri Velle, Møreforskning
- Håvard Kauserud, University of Oslo
- Inge Althuizen, NORCE Research (Miljø/Klima Vestland)
- Torhild Kvingedal, Lyngheisenteret
- Sean Michaeletz, University of British Columbia
- Brian Enquist, University of Arizona
- Sonya Geange, University of Bergen
- Aud Halbritter,University of Bergen
- Richard Telford, University of Bergen
- Dagmar Egelkraut, University of Bergen
- Hui Tang, University of Oslo
- Ane Vollsnes, University of Oslo
- Ella Thoen, University of Oslo
- Siri Haugum, Lyngheisenteret
- Rosie Fisher, CICERO